Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) or Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) or Clean India Mission was a country-wide campaign from 2014 to 2019, to eliminate open defecation and improve solid waste management (SWM) in urban and rural areas in India. The objectives of the mission also included eradication of manual scavenging, generating awareness and bringing about a behavior change regarding sanitation practices, and augmentation of capacity at the local level. Initiated by the Government of India, the mission aimed to achieve an "open-defecation free" (ODF) India by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi. The mission aimed at progressing towards target 6.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals Number 6 established by the United Nations in 2015.
The campaign was officially launched on 2 October 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. It is India's largest cleanliness drive to date with three million government employees and students from all parts of India participating in 4,043 cities, towns, and rural communities. At a rally in Champaran, the Prime minister called the campaign Satyagrah se Swachhagrah in reference to Gandhi's Champaran Satyagraha launched on 10 April 1916.
As part of the campaign, volunteers, known as Swachhtagrahis, or "Ambassadors of cleanliness", promoted indoor plumbing and community approaches to sanitation (CAS) at the Household level.
The objectives of the mission are mentioned below:
- Elimination of open defecation
- Eradication of Manual Scavenging
- Modern and Scientific Municipal Solid Waste Management
- To effect behavioral change regarding healthy sanitation practices
- Generate awareness about sanitation and its linkage with public health
- Capacity Augmentation for ULB’s
- To create an enabling environment for private sector participation in Capex (capital expenditure) and Opex (operation and maintenance)
The Mission has the following components:
- Household toilets, including conversion of insanitary latrines into pour-flush latrines
- Community toilets
- Public toilets
- Solid waste management
- IEC & Public Awareness
- Capacity building and Administrative & Office Expenses (A&OE)
Door to Door Collection –
- Sanitation volunteers knocked on the doors of each house in old city and appealed people not to throw garbage in the open and instead use dustbins placed in their respective areas. Simultaneously, sanitation efforts included door-to-door garbage collection in all 90 wards.
- Door to Door Collection is ongoing in all the 90 Wards from Houses, Commercial & Institutional Establishments, RWAs, All Formal Colonies and other Non-Residential Premises.
- At Slums and Informal Settlements Door to Door is partially done; Common Bins are installed for Residents to deposit Solid Waste and lifted by Collector.
- Efforts ongoing to practice Door to Door Collection in Slums and informal Settlements.
- Waste being transported from Source to Processing Facilities is transported in covered Vehicles and in the case of open vehicles the waste is covered with Tarpaulin.
- One Transfer Station at Bhawania Pokhri and one Transfer Station at Fatman are currently operational
Separate Transportation –
- All vehicles transporting waste to Transfer Stations are compartmentalized into wet and dry.
- Certain number of vehicles have been especially dedicated for Covid-19 waste (Hazardous waste) and transported to Pt. Deendayal upadhayay Hospital for processing M/s Silicon welfare at Gazipur.
- All vehicles to Transfer Stations and from Transfer Stations to Processing facilities are fitted with GPS.
Waste Processing –
- All waste transferred directly to the three Waste to Energy Plants are manually and mechanically segregated into Dry and Wet. Wet waste is processed. Recyclable Dry Waste is lifted by Rag Pickers or sent to MRF Centre. Non-recyclable dry waste is stored & forwarded to Karsada waste to compost Plant.
- All waste transferred to Karsada Waste to Compost Plant is manually and mechanically segregated into wet and dry. Recyclable dry waste is lifted by Rag Pickers while Non-Recyclable dry waste is processed into Refuse Derived Fuel/RDF along with the wet waste processed into Compost.
- Two MRF facilities are currently functioning—a) Bhawania Pokhri MRF under O & M of M/s.Teri & M/s.GIZ India. b) Fatman MRF under O & M of M/s.Coca Cola & UNDP.
- Under the mission, 56 (473 seats) community toilets and 182 (1426 seats), Public Toilets 3 toilet (13 seats) pink toilet, 1 toilet (2 seats) for third gender and 417 seats urinal have already been constructed. Of the total, 30 per cent toilets are for women.
- 10291 Individual household toilets have already been constructed under this project.
Plastic Waste –
VNN has set up a “ Pravartan Dal” that conducts regular patrolling and raids to ensure compliance of ban on Plastic below<50 microns and single use plastic.
User Fee –
- User fee is being collected monthly from all waste generators against receipts.
Penalty Provision –
- Criteria for levying Spot Fines for littering, Open Burning, Open Defecation, Open dumping and failure to comply with provision of VNN Bye-Laws are already prescribed and public notification issued in major Newspapers.
- Zonal Officers, Inspectors, Supervisors and Collectors have been delegated powers to levy spot fine as per framed Bye-Laws.
Notification of Bye-Laws-
- Bye-Laws incorporating provisions of MSW Rules 2016 are already framed and are being timely implemented.
Citizen Grievance Redressel –
- Complaints received daily via Swachhata App, IGRS and Phone are immediately resolved. After resolution of complaint feedback is obtained from Complainant to ensure satisfactory redressel of citizen grievance.
Monitoring Mechanism –
- In the first week of every month, data and target achievements of the previous month are updated on the Online MIS regularly.
Ranking & Awarding 2016-2020
Varanasi Municipal Corporation got some award and ranking.
- In 2016-2017 the City achieved 1st Position in Uttar Pradesh and 32nd Position Pan India, out of 500 cities.
- In 2017-2018 the City achieved 1st Position in Uttar Pradesh and was ranked 29th Position Pan-India out of 4000 Cities.
- In 2018-2019 the City achieved 4th Position in Uttar Pradesh and was ranked 70th Position Pan-India out of 4403 Cities.
- In the 1st Quarter of 2019-2020 the City was ranked 14th out of cities having population of 10 Lakhs and above
- In the 2nd Quarter of 2019-2020 the city was ranked 19th out of cities having population of 10 Lakhs and above.
- In 2017-18 the City achieved Skoch Award for cleaning of 84 Ganga Ghat.
- Received trophies from State and Central Governments.